Just like humans, dogs can also develop conjunctivitis, commonly known as “pink eye.”
Conjunctivitis is a common eye condition in dogs that can affect one or both eyes, leading to redness, inflammation, and irritation. Dog owners need to know the signs of conjunctivitis to catch and treat it before it causes long-term damage.
What is Conjunctivitis in Dogs?
Conjunctivitis, also known as pink eye, is an inflammation or irritation of the conjunctiva, which lines the inner surface of the eyelids and the white portion of the eye.
Conjunctivitis can affect both eyes or just one. Conjunctivitis may begin in one eye and spread to the other if the cause is infectious. Conjunctivitis is a condition where the conjunctiva, the clear membrane that covers the white part of the eye, becomes inflamed.
The inflammation can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection, allergies, or physical irritation. Conjunctivitis can be acute, meaning it appears suddenly and resolves quickly, or chronic, where the condition persists for a long time.
If you notice any of these symptoms in your dog, you should take him to the vet immediately and begin dog conjunctivitis treatment.
Types of Conjunctivitis in Dogs
Pets with conjunctivitis usually have cloudy, yellow, or greenish discharge from the eyes, blink or squint a lot, and have redness and swelling around the eyes.
Green or yellow discharge is a sign of bacterial infections, while clear or whitish discharge is frequently the result of allergies or eye debris. Although both eyes are commonly affected, only one eye may be affected in some cases.
Other signs of conjunctivitis include itching, hair loss around the eye, discharge from the nose, sneezing, or coughing.
There are three main types of conjunctivitis in dogs:
#1. Allergic Conjunctivitis
Allergic conjunctivitis is a common type of conjunctivitis that can affect any breed of dog or cat.
It is most common in young adults but can occur at any age. Dogs and cats predisposed to atopic dermatitis, which is a hypersensitivity or overreaction to common and otherwise harmless substances like pollen, are also prone to allergic conjunctivitis.
Several factors may contribute to allergic conjunctivitis, including allergies, atopy, dust, food allergies, and house dust or molds.
Eyedrops or ointments with corticosteroids, like dexamethasone or hydrocortisone, which can reduce inflammation, are usually used to treat allergic conjunctivitis.
However, if the eye has a scratch, medication without steroids is used, as steroids can delay the healing of the scratch. Oral corticosteroids and/or antihistamines may also be beneficial, particularly in pets with associated skin diseases.
#2. Viral Conjunctivitis
Viral conjunctivitis in dogs is a type of conjunctivitis that is caused by a virus. The most common viruses that cause conjunctivitis in dogs are the canine adenovirus, canine distemper virus, and herpesvirus.
Symptoms of viral conjunctivitis in dogs include redness and swelling of the conjunctiva and discharge from the eye that can be clear or yellowish. Other symptoms may include squinting, blinking, eye rubbing, and light sensitivity.
In some cases, the cornea of the eye may also become cloudy.
Viral conjunctivitis in dogs is very contagious and can easily spread from one dog to another through direct contact with infected eye discharge or through objects like bedding or toys that are contaminated.
When dogs are crowded together, like in kennels or animal shelters, they are more likely to get viral conjunctivitis.
The diagnosis of viral conjunctivitis is typically made based on the dog’s clinical signs, medical history, and physical examination. In some situations, lab tests may be needed to figure out which virus is causing the infection.
Most of the time, supportive care is used to help dogs with viral conjunctivitis deal with their symptoms. This could include using ointments or drops on the skin to reduce swelling and ease pain.
In severe cases, oral antiviral medications may be necessary to help fight the infection.
It’s important to keep dogs from getting viral conjunctivitis, especially in places where they live close to each other. Vaccination against the viruses that cause conjunctivitis, such as canine adenovirus and canine distemper virus, can help reduce the risk of infection.
Also, maintaining good hygiene practices, such as frequent hand washing and surface disinfection, can help prevent the spread of the virus.
#3. Bacterial Conjunctivitis
Bacterial conjunctivitis is a common eye infection in dogs that occurs when bacteria invade the conjunctiva, the thin, pink membrane that lines the inside of the eyelids and covers the white part of the eye.
A variety of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, and Escherichia coli can cause this infection. Dogs with bacterial conjunctivitis typically have red, swollen eyes and a yellow-green discharge.
They may also blink excessively, squint, and rub their eyes. Most of the time, antibiotic eye drops or ointments are used to treat bacterial conjunctivitis in dogs. In more severe cases, they may also need to take oral antibiotics.
Prompt diagnosis and treatment are important to prevent complications such as corneal ulcers and vision loss.
Which Dogs Are Prone to Conjunctivitis?
All dogs can develop conjunctivitis, but certain breeds are more prone to the condition than others.
Breeds with big eyes that stick out, like Pugs, Bulldogs, and Shih Tzus, are more likely to get conjunctivitis from physical irritation or damage to the eye. Dogs with allergies are also more prone to allergic conjunctivitis.
Symptoms of Conjunctivitis in Dogs
When a dog has conjunctivitis, the symptoms can vary depending on what caused it and how bad it is. However, some common symptoms of conjunctivitis in dogs include:
- Redness in the eye
- Swelling around the eye
- Discharge from the eye, which may be clear or cloudy
- Squinting or rubbing the eye
- Excessive tearing
- Sensitivity to light
- Change in the color of the iris
If you notice any of these symptoms, it is essential to take your dog to the vet for a proper diagnosis and treatment.
Causes of Conjunctivitis in Dogs
There are various causes of conjunctivitis in dogs, including:
- Bacterial, viral, or fungal infection
- Allergies to substances in the environment
- Trauma or physical irritation to the eye
- Exposure to chemicals or toxins
- Autoimmune diseases
- Congenital abnormalities
Diagnosis of Conjunctivitis in Dogs
When a dog is suspected of having conjunctivitis, the first step is a physical examination. The veterinarian will check for foreign objects in the eye and contributing factors like hair rubbing on the eye and poor eyelid conformation.
An anesthetic eye drop may be used to numb the eye and make the examination more tolerable. It is important to note that conjunctivitis can be a secondary condition to another type of illness, such as a respiratory tract infection, so both conditions may need to be treated.
In more severe cases, such as corneal ulcers, a definitive diagnosis can be made by using an orange dye called fluorescein, which makes scratches, ulcers, and foreign material visible under blue light.
A full eye examination is necessary to determine the appropriate treatment for conjunctivitis in dogs.
How to Treat Conjunctivitis in Dogs?
While it is important to have your dog’s conjunctivitis evaluated by a veterinarian, there are some things you can do at home to help ease their discomfort and promote healing. Cleaning the area around your dog’s eyes regularly is the best way to prevent conjunctivitis.
Whenever your pup’s eyes are dirty, detritus can accumulate here and cause problems.
Wipe your dog’s eyes gently with a paper towel dampened with warm water to get all the stuff that gets stuck there out.
Natural Remedies For Conjunctivitis In Dogs
There are several natural remedies that can be used to treat conjunctivitis in dogs, including saline eye drops, cold compresses, and regular cleaning of the area around the eyes. These remedies can help reduce inflammation, clean the eyes, and prevent further irritation.
Saline eye drops: If you want to make your own saltwater rinse for your dog, follow these steps:
- Bringing a cup of water to a rolling boil
- Turn the heat off
- Then add half a teaspoon of salt
- Cool the water to room temperature
Clean your dog’s eye corner with a sterilized cotton ball to get rid of any discharge. You should be able to give your dog some relief if you do this three times a day.
Cold compress: Cold compresses may provide some much-needed relief from inflammation. Use a wet washcloth to press against your dog’s closed eyes for three minutes, several times a day.
Artificial tears: Artificial tears are commonly prescribed for dogs with Dry Eye Syndrome because they contain a lubricant. These have different ingredients than human contact solutions, which shouldn’t be used on dogs.
Elizabethan collars for dogs with conjunctivitis: Even though they have weird names and look weird, Elizabethan collars might help your dog with conjunctivitis. Although they won’t fix your dog’s condition, they’ll keep him from rubbing at it, which could make things worse.
Can Dog Conjunctivitis Be Prevented?
While it can be caused by a variety of factors, including allergies, viral or bacterial infections, and trauma to the eye, there are some preventative measures that dog owners can take to reduce the risk of their furry friends contracting conjunctivitis.
One of the most effective ways to prevent conjunctivitis in dogs is to maintain good hygiene practices.
Regularly cleaning the area around your dog’s eyes can help to remove any debris or dirt that may cause irritation or infection. It’s also important to keep your dog’s face clean, especially after they’ve been outside or around other dogs.
Another preventative measure is to keep your dog’s vaccinations up-to-date.
Some cases of conjunctivitis are caused by infectious agents, such as the canine adenovirus or canine herpes virus. Ensuring that your dog is vaccinated against these viruses can help to prevent conjunctivitis and other illnesses.
Additionally, taking steps to prevent trauma to your dog’s eyes can also help to prevent conjunctivitis. This can include using protective eyewear for your dog during activities such as swimming or playing in rough terrain.
While there is no foolproof way to prevent conjunctivitis in dogs, taking these preventative measures can help to reduce the risk of your dog contracting this common condition.
Suppose you notice any signs of conjunctivitis in your dog, such as redness, swelling, discharge, or excessive blinking or squinting. In that case, it’s important to seek veterinary care promptly to prevent further complications.
Recovery Time for Conjunctivitis in Dogs
Conjunctivitis in dogs can take different amounts of time to heal, depending on how bad it is and what causes it. In some cases, conjunctivitis can clear up within a few days to a week with proper treatment, while other cases may require several weeks of treatment and monitoring.
It’s important to remember that even if the symptoms of conjunctivitis seem to have gone away, the underlying cause may still be there. If left untreated, this could cause the symptoms to come back.
Regular follow-up appointments with a veterinarian and ongoing preventative measures, such as regular eye cleaning and addressing any underlying health issues, can help to prevent the recurrence of conjunctivitis in dogs.