Concerns are being raised about the side effects of a psychedelic drink enjoyed by Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers, Miley Cyrus and Joe Rogan.
Researchers surveyed more than 10,000 people from more than 50 countries about their experiences with ayahuasca, an ancient South American brew.
They found 70 per cent experienced at least one adverse physical effect and more than half said they had negative mental health issues while on ayahuasca.
The most commonly reported physical side effects were vomiting or nausea, headache and abdominal pain — but a small number suffered seizures.
However, these negative effects were rarely severe, and nearly 90 per cent of users considered them ‘completely or somewhat part of a positive growth process’.
Ayahuasca is a drink made by boiling together vine stems along with leaves from a chacruna shrub — both native to the Amazonia region.
Because the effects are quite extreme, westerners who take ayahuasca usually do so in ceremonies led by a shaman, which have been covered in Netflix shows such as (Un)well.
The drink has already been blamed for the struggles of Packers quarterback Aaron Rodgers, with his team having lost five games in a row this season.
Miley Cyrus said she ‘loved’ the drug and that it left her seeing snakes immediately, in an interview with magazine Rolling Stone in 2020.
Joe Rogan is a big proponent of DMT — the active ingredient used in ayahuasca — and regularly shares his experiences on his podcast.
Dr Jose Carlos Bouso, a psychologist at the International Center for Ethnobotanical Education, Research and Services in Barcelona, Spain, who led the work, said: ‘Many are turning to ayahuasca due to disenchantment with conventional Western mental health treatments.
‘However, the disruptive power of this traditional medicine should not be under-estimated, commonly resulting in mental health or emotional challenges during assimilation.’
Ayahuasca is a brown-reddish drink made by boiling stems from its namesake vine and leaves from the chacruna shrub together (pictured)
Packers Quarterback Aaron Rodgers and Miley Cyrus are among celebrities who have used Ayahuasca. It is popular among some for alleged healing benefits
Seven in ten people who took ayahuasca said they had a physical side-effect. The most common was vomiting, but this is considered normal with the drink and part of ‘cleansing’
Shown above are the mental side-effects that people said they faced. Hearing or seeing things or feeling disconnected were the most common ones
What is Ayahuasca?
Ayahuasca is a hallucinogenic drink that is illegal in the US and UK but widely used by tribal societies in the Amazon basin.
Shamans consider ayahuasca a ‘wisdom’ plant that allows an entry into the spiritual world, and it was recognized as such by the government of Peru in 2008.
It can cause hallucinations that are similar to the effects of LSD or magic mushrooms, according to Talk to Frank. They last for two hours and are ‘usually pleasurable’ but can cause panic and horrifying flashbacks, the website says.
The negative emotional effects from taking ayahuasca can last for days, and make it especially dangerous for people with mental health problems.
It can also raise blood pressure and heart rate and may harm those with a pre-existing heart condition.
For at least a century, ayahuasca has been used for spiritual purposes by the indigenous peoples of the Amazon basin, typically in religious rituals.
But the drink is now gaining popularity in the Western world as an alternative to other mental health treatments.
The drug contains the compound N,N-Dymethyltriptamine (DMT) which is one of the world’s most powerful known hallucinations.
DMT is banned under federal law, as a schedule I substance — the highest category.
Some religious and ethnic groups have gained an exemption to this ban, meaning it can be taken at ceremonies.
In the latest study, published in the journal PLOS Global Public Health, scientists analyzed the results of an online survey conducted from 2017 to 2019.
They were all over 18 years old, and claimed to have used the drink at least once.
Most said they believed it had helped them to grow.
But a majority of participants also faced negative physical or mental effects.
The most common side-effect was vomiting (62 per cent of participants), followed by hearing or seeing things (28 per cent) and feeling disconnected or alone (21 per cent).
Other side-effects reported included nightmares (19 per cent), visual distortions (15 per cent) and difficulty determining reality (13 per cent).
Nearly one in five participants also said they faced a headache after drinking Ayahuasca, while up to four per cent said they fainted or suffered seizures.
People who were older, had a health condition or used Ayahuasca regularly were more likely to experience the side-effects.
In the paper, scientists said vomiting was a known side-effect that was even sought because of the perceived cleansing or purging benefit.
Seizures due to the drink are also known, and thought to reflect a spiritual phenomena.
But scientists warned they can pose very real health effects, and said users should remain alert to the risks.
Ayahuasca risks were highest for those taking it in an unsupervised context, they said.
Aaron Rodgers has taken ayahuasca on-and-off since 2020, crediting the drink for his performance on the pitch.
But commentators and fans alike have called the habit into question, blaming it for the team losing five games in a row — including last week to the lowly Detroit Lions.
Commentator Robert Griffin said: ‘In order for the Green Bay Packers to dig themselves out of this hole, they need the best version of Aaron Rodgers.
‘And right now, that ayahuasca seems like it has him in a completely different world.’
Joe Rogan has made many podcast episodes extolling the benefits of drinking ayahuasca, and spoken to many celebrities about it.
In August he said: ‘Isn’t it funny that that sounds like a crazy thing to say, but that would literally fix the world: if more people had psychedelic trips and more people had more experiences that dissolved their ego and more people had an understanding that community isn’t just a bunch of people that live together, it’s a bunch of people that care about each other — and that we could treat the world like a community.’