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Deflecting asteroids like Bennu may require ‘multiple bumps’

Deflecting an asteroid such as Bennu, which has a small chance of hitting Earth in about a century and a half, could require multiple small impacts from some sort of massive human-made deflection device, according to experts.

Scientists in California have been firing projectiles at meteorites to simulate the best methods of altering the course of an asteroid so that it wouldn’t hit Earth. 

According to the results so far, an asteroid like Bennu that is rich in carbon could need several small bumps to charge its course.

Bennu, which is about a third of a mile wide, has a slightly greater chance of hitting Earth than previously thought, NASA revealed earlier this month.

The space agency upgraded the risk of Bennu impacting Earth at some point over the next 300 years to one in 1,750.

Bennu also has a one-in-2,700 chance of hitting Earth on the afternoon of September 24, 2182, according to the NASA study.    

This mosaic of Bennu was created from multiple images using observations by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx spacecraft. Although there is a slight chance Bennu will smash into Earth over the next three centuries, NASA notes there is more than a 99.9 percent probability it will not

Scientists have been seriously considering how to stop an asteroid from ever hitting Earth since the 1960s, but previous approaches have generally involved theories on how to blow the cosmic object into thousands of pieces.

The problem with this is these pieces could potentially zoom towards Earth and present almost as dangerous and humanity-threatening issue as the original asteroid. 

A more recent approach, called kinetic impact deflection (KID), involves firing something into space that more gently bumps the asteroid off course, away from Earth, while keeping it intact. 

Recent KID efforts were outlined at the 84th annual meeting of the Meteoritical Society held in Chicago this month and led by Dr George Flynn, a physicist at State University of New York, Plattsburgh.  

‘You might have to use multiple impacts,’ Dr Flynn said in conversation with The New York Times. ‘It [Bennu] may barely miss, but barely missing is enough.’

Researchers have been working at NASA’s Ames Vertical Gun Range, built in the 1960s during the Apollo era and based at Moffett Federal Airfield in California’s Silicon Valley, for the recent KID experiments.

They fired small, spherical aluminum projectiles at meteorites suspended by pieces of nylon string.

The NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR, pictured) is a facility that allows experts to investigate potential meteor or asteroid impacts on a planet or moon surface, as well as other research areas

The NASA Ames Vertical Gun Range (AVGR, pictured) is a facility that allows experts to investigate potential meteor or asteroid impacts on a planet or moon surface, as well as other research areas

AVGR, pictured, was designed to conduct scientific studies of lunar impact processes in support of the Apollo missions

AVGR, pictured, was designed to conduct scientific studies of lunar impact processes in support of the Apollo missions 

The team used 32 meteorites – which are fragments of asteroids that have fallen to Earth from space – that were mostly purchased from private dealers. 

The tests have allowed them to work out at what point momentum from a human-made object fired towards an asteroid turns it into thousands of fragments, rather than knocking it off course as desired. 

‘If you break it into pieces, some of those pieces may still be on a collision course with Earth,’ Dr Flynn said. 

DIFFERENT TYPES OF ASTEROIDS FROM THE SOLAR SYSTEM

Asteroid classification has proved controversial, with a number of letter-based systems developed. 

According to NASA the three main types are labelled C, S and M.

C-type (chondrite) asteroids are the most common in the solar system and likely consist of clay and silicate rocks.

They are darker than other asteroids and the most ancient objects in the solar system – dating back to its birth.

S-type (stony) asteroids are made of silicate materials as well as nickel-iron and are the most common visitors to the Earth of the asteroid types.

M-type (nickel-iron) asteroids vary depending on how far from the sun they formed.

Some are partly melted with iron sinking to the centre and forcing volcanic lava to the surface. 

Carbonaceous chondrite (C-type) asteroids, such as Bennu, are the most common in the solar system. 

They are darker than other asteroids due to the presence of carbon and are some of the most ancient objects in the solar system – dating back to its birth. 

According to the findings from experiments at AVGR, the type of asteroid being targeted (and how much carbon it has in it) may dictate how much momentum would be directed at it from any human-made KID device.   

From the experiments, the researchers found C-type meteorites could withstand only about one-sixth of the momentum that the other chondrites could withstand before shattering. 

‘[C-type] asteroids are much more difficult to deflect without disruption than ordinary chondrite asteroids,’ the experts concluded.  

‘These results indicate multiple successive impacts may be required to deflect rather than disrupt asteroids, particularly carbonaceous asteroids.’

Therefore, around 160 years in the future – when Bennu is most likely to collide with Earth, according to NASA – a KID device would have to give it a series of gentle nudges to prevent it from breaking up and sending dangerous splinter fragments flying towards Earth.

NASA’s recent study about Bennu, published in the journal Icarus earlier this month, did point out there is more than a 99.9 per cent probability Bennu will not smash into Earth over the next three centuries. 

‘Although the chances of it hitting Earth are very low, Bennu remains one of the two most hazardous known asteroids in our solar system, along with another asteroid called 1950 DA,’ NASA said in a statement. 

Asteroid Bennu, which is about a third of a mile wide, has a 1-in-2,700 chance of hitting Earth on the afternoon of September 24, 2182 (pictured). The statement was share by NASA on Wednesday and stems from data collected by the OSIRIS-Rex spacecraft that is brining samples of the asteroid back to Earth

Asteroid Bennu, which is about a third of a mile wide, has a 1-in-2,700 chance of hitting Earth on the afternoon of September 24, 2182 (pictured). The statement was share by NASA on Wednesday and stems from data collected by the OSIRIS-Rex spacecraft that is brining samples of the asteroid back to Earth

Next year, NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test (DART) mission will test KID technologies on a real asteroid in the solar system, called Didymoon.  

DART, a space probe, will smash into Didymoon, which orbits a larger asteroid called Didymos, at 13,500 miles per hour (21,700 km per hour) in October 2022. The mission is expected to launch this November.

DART will track and analyse data from Didymos and the smaller asteroid Didymoon, before slamming into it while it’s sufficiently far away from Earth. 

A NASA mission due to launch in November 2021 will experiment on our planetary defence system to protect the Earth from the threat of a collision with an asteroid. Pictured, an artist's depiction of NASA's DART mission to nudge an asteroid off course

A NASA mission due to launch in November 2021 will experiment on our planetary defence system to protect the Earth from the threat of a collision with an asteroid. Pictured, an artist’s depiction of NASA’s DART mission to nudge an asteroid off course

The mission is called the Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART. The NASA graphic shows how the Double Asteroid Rendezvous Test (DART) will crash into a moonlet of the asteroid Didymos in 2022

The mission is called the Double Asteroid Redirection Test, or DART. The NASA graphic shows how the Double Asteroid Rendezvous Test (DART) will crash into a moonlet of the asteroid Didymos in 2022

Explained: The difference between an asteroid, meteorite and other space rocks

An asteroid is a large chunk of rock left over from collisions or the early solar system. Most are located between Mars and Jupiter in the Main Belt.

A comet is a rock covered in ice, methane and other compounds. Their orbits take them much further out of the solar system.

A meteor is what astronomers call a flash of light in the atmosphere when debris burns up.

This debris itself is known as a meteoroid. Most are so small they are vapourised in the atmosphere.

If any of this meteoroid makes it to Earth, it is called a meteorite.

Meteors, meteoroids and meteorites normally originate from asteroids and comets.

For example, if Earth passes through the tail of a comet, much of the debris burns up in the atmosphere, forming a meteor shower.

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