What is an interview?
An interview is a survey by questioners (so-called interviewers, e.g. journalists, college interviews, etc.) with the aim of determining personal information or facts. During an interview, e.g., the journalist with one (sometimes several) person (s), usually with specialists in a field ask (s) several professional and personal questions. On the other hand, the college admission interviews take breathe out; you can learn more about medicine interview tutors here.
As a rule, the journalist asks questions, which the interviewee answers.
It is particularly good when you receive new, interesting and detailed information from the person interviewed. Therefore, one should be careful not to ask questions that can only be answered with yes or no.
Before the interview
If you want to interview someone, don’t make it too complicated like medicine interview tutoring. Here’s what you should do:
- Make up your mind beforehand what you would like to find out and why you want to interview this person in particular.
- Think carefully about the questions to ask your interviewee.
- Prepare an interview sheet by writing down the questions, leaving space underneath to write down the answers.
- Consider recording the interview so you can hear answers again.
If you choose to do this, you need to ask your interviewee if that is okay with him/her too.
During the interview
- Greet the person you are talking to and behave appropriately (polite, friendly) (throughout the interview).
- Always ask a single question and let your interviewee speak.
- Respond to his/her answers.
- Attempts statements to comment (e.g., “That sounds really exciting”) and ask again in addition to when something is open or you more interested in a thing.
- Write down the answers in bullet points on the interview sheet.
- At the end of the conversation, thank the person you are talking to.
After the interview
- At the end, you should revise your interview. Sheet again: Read the sheet with your key words carefully, add anything you can think of that you have not noted down and try to make everything understandable. You can now listen to your recording again and compare it with your keywords.
- Depending on the purpose of your interview, you can now copy or type it, make a summary of the information or prepare it for a presentation.
Different forms of interview
There are three different types of interview:
- The interview on the person: Here questions are asked that concern the person himself.
- The interview to the point: Here questions are asked that help clarify a situation, for example about a job.
- The Interview on Opinion: Questions are asked here that require a person to comment on a matter, e.g., whether one likes a cell phone ban at school.
Different types of questions: The leading question
With regard to the questions, one differentiates between different forms:
When leading towards question the respondent is influenced by the way the presentation of the question. Leading questions are asked in such a way that the interlocutor actually has no other option than to answer in the affirmative.
For instance: “Do you really think that a youth club is an essential need of the city?” Or “You surely find it good if the applicants are not only motivated but also have good references?”
The introductory parts, which require approval, force the interlocutor to give an answer, which is, however, given by the interviewer.
Closed questions can only be explained with very short answers.
For example: “Whose idea was it to start a youth club in this city?” Or “Where did you go on your honeymoon?”
The answer to question one would be a name (or possibly several names), but not a long story of how the idea came about. The answer to question two would also be rather short: the person you were talking to would probably name the country and possibly add something to the place, but certainly not tell what he has done.
Open-ended questions, on the other hand, allow the interviewee to form longer answers and should motivate them to tell.
For example: “How did you come up with the idea?” Or “How did you enter this job?”
Questions with “how” are mostly open. For the first question, the interview partner should describe the process of generating ideas. The second question is also expected to have a more detailed answer.
Work out points of view
In conversations, arguments or discussions, it is sometimes not that easy to understand the people you’re talking to. This can lead to misunderstandings and problems. It is particularly important that you recognize the opinions, i.e., the points of view, of your interlocutors. This is the only way you can really understand what he or she is saying and react to it. Positions are usually for pro against a topic.
Example: tablet PC
Louis: “I think tablets are super practical. You can take it with you anywhere, the screen is much larger than a smartphone and you can do a lot more with it! ”
Anna: ” I would favor staying with the laptop, without a keyboard and with touch function in it, I just can’t write better in speed. I love to watch videos on my laptop, for instance on long train journeys. You can’t do that on a tablet. ”
Louis likes tablets. He even substantiates his thesis (statement) “Tablets are super practical” with two arguments (bigger screen and more to begin with than with a smartphone).
Anna is against a tablet PC. Her thesis is “I prefer to stay with the laptop.” She also adds arguments to her statement that support the point of view (you can write better and faster with the keyboard; you can play DVDs with a laptop).
You can usually recognize points of view by the content of the statement and the support by evidence. Sometimes, however, a statement during a discussion may be very brief and also contain no argument.
For example in this case: Leon: “Never!”
- Clearly, Leon is against something. Of course, you need the context of the conversation in order to be able to say exactly against what.
- But there are so-called commentary adverbs that give an indication of whether someone is for or against a topic.
- Indecisive points of view can also be recognized by the commenting adverbs.
In the examples you can recognize the point of view through commenting adverbs:
- Julia: ” I would never get pierced.”
- Jessica: ” Without a doubt I would get pierced.”
- Janine: ” Maybe I would have myself pierced.”
These adverbs tend to agree with a topic : always, undoubtedly, hopefully … These adverbs show an indecisive opinion on a topic: possibly, maybe, apparently … These adverbs tend not to agree with a topic : in no way, never, not …
In addition, viewpoints with different intentions, i.e. intended expressiveness or effect, can be expressed.
- “Before I do that, I’d rather die” is a point of view with a very strong and aggressive rejection of a topic.
- “I definitely want to do that”, on the other hand, shows a very positive opinion on a topic.
- “Maybe I should try it out” is a point of view that seems cautious .
So, to find out a person’s point of view, there are three things to look out for:
- What is the content of the statement and how is the argument made ?
- Are there commentary adverbs that confirm or deny a statement?
- With what intention (meaningfulness / effect) is the statement made?