What Causes Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer is prevalent among men and women, and it originates in the bladder cells. The human bladder is a muscular organ that is hollow and stores urine. Often, this cancer begins in the urothelial cells that line your bladder’s interior.

These cells are also found in the kidneys and ureters, which connect the bladder to the kidneys. Urothelial cell cancer can transpire in the ureters or the kidneys; however, it is most common in the bladder.

Bladder cancers are usually diagnosed early, making them highly treatable. However, it can come back after treatment. Due to its recurring nature, people who had this cancer before need to get follow-up tests to monitor if it recurs.

Bladder cancer has three types

  • Transitional Cell Carcinoma. It is the most common bladder cancer type in both men and women. It commences in the transitional cells of the bladder’s inner layer. Transitional cells have the ability to change their shape without becoming impaired when the tissue stretches.
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma. It is rare cancer in the bladder, and it commences when thin, flat squamous cells develop in the bladder after long-term infection or aggravation.
  • Adenocarcinoma. It is also rare cancer in the bladder. It forms when glandular cells develop in the bladder after prolonged bladder inflammation. These cells make the mucus-secreting glands in your body.

Symptoms of Bladder Cancer

  • Blood in the urine or hematuria causes urine to appear bright red (sometimes urine remains normal, and blood is only detected in the lab tests).
  • Frequent urination
  • Pain while urinating
  • Back pain
  • Pain in the urination
  • Inconsistent urination
  • Abdomen pain

Causes of Bladder Cancer

Bladder cancer occurs when its cells mutate their DNA. The DNA of the cell is responsible for instructing its functions. These mutations direct the cells to multiply rapidly and persist even after the death of healthy cells.

These cells become abnormal and form a tumor that destroys body tissues. These abnormal cells can also break away and metastasize, meaning they can spread throughout your body.

To date, the exact cause of bladder cancer remains unknown. However, it commences when the normal cell growth overly multiplies in number and invades healthy body tissue.

It is always better to consult a specialist for better guidance.

Risk Factors

The following factors may increase the risk of bladder cancer:

Smoking – Smoking can increase your chances of bladder cancer by inducing harmful chemicals to gather in the urine.

Your body processes all the chemicals when you smoke and discharges some of them in the urine, damaging the lining of your bladder, which can raise your risk of cancer.

Aging – As you age, your risk of bladder cancer multiplies. Although it can happen at any age, most individuals diagnosed with bladder cancer are 55 or more.

Male – Bladder cancer is more prevalent in men than women.

Exposure to Harmful Chemicals – Your kidneys filter out harmful chemicals from your bloodstream and transfer them to your bladder. For this reason, it is considered that being exposed to chemicals may raise the risk of bladder cancer.

Chemicals that may cause bladder cancer include arsenic and chemicals for manufacturing dyes, leather, textiles, rubber, and painting items.

Prior Cancer Treatment – Anti-cancer medication cyclophosphamide raises the chance of bladder cancer. Individuals who acquired radiation treatments anywhere in the pelvis region for previous cancer are more vulnerable to developing bladder cancer.

Chronic Bladder Inflammation – Chronic and recurring UTIs or inflammations called cystitis, which might occur due to prolonged use of a urinary catheter, may increase the risk of having squamous cell bladder cancer.

In some areas around the globe, squamous cell carcinoma is related to chronic bladder inflammation usually induced by the parasitic infection commonly called schistosomiasis.

Family History of Cancer – If you have been diagnosed with bladder cancer before, you will most likely get it again. Likewise, if any of your blood relatives have a history of cancer, chances are you would get it too.

Although it is rare for bladder cancer to run in the family, it can always occur.

Moreover, a family history of Lynch syndrome or hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) can increase cancer risk in the urinary system, ovaries, uterus, colon, and other vital organs.


There is no guaranteed way to prevent cancer cell growth, but you can practice some steps to avoid it as much as possible. These preventive measures are:

Do not Smoke – If you do not smoke, then try not to start it either. If you already smoke, try to quit. Your primary care physician can also help you with a plan to quit your smoking habits. Moreover, support groups, medications, and other techniques may also help you stop.

Be Vigilant around Chemicals – If you have to work with or around chemicals, you must observe all safety instructions to avoid exposure.

Eat Good Nutritious Meals – Always consume a diet full of fruits and vegetables as their antioxidants may help lessen your chances of getting cancer.

Book an appointment with the best Urologist in Faisalabad through Marham for more information. Marham is the platform proven as the best way of connectivity with medical experts. You can easily consult the best urologist and use it to call, video call, or fix a physical meeting all over Pakistan.